About us

Terence MeadenProfessor Terence Meaden
TORRO founder
Paul KnightleyPaul Knightley
Head of TORRO


The Tornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO), founded by Terence Meaden in 1974, is a privately-supported research body serving the national and international public interest. Originally called the Tornado Research Organisation it was expanded in 1982 following the inclusion of the Thunderstorm Census Organisation (TCO). Data-collection, research and co-ordination is undertaken by the Directors of TORRO, which is supported by some 300 to 400 observers, investigators and other contributors. Most supporters are British, with a smaller number from elsewhere in Europe and across the world.

Work by all TORRO Staff - the Directors, Executives, European Representatives, and all members and supporters - is undertaken voluntarily. Until 1998, all funding was undertaken by the Directors with the help of donations. In 1998 the official membership scheme was launched to ease the increasing financial burden. TORRO Staff are composed of professional and amateur meteorologists, with academic qualifications ranging from novices to doctorates: the only requirement is an interest in the subject area, enthusiasm and a desire to add to the body of scientific knowledge for the good of mankind.

The core of TORRO's activity has been in data collection, site investigations and climatological research. Despite limited budgets TORRO has expanded into other areas such as forecasting and the growth of core activities from the British and Irish starting-point to a continental scale now encompassing all of Europe. TORRO carries out research on many aspects of severe weather including hailstorms, lightning impacts, tornadoes and thunderstorms.

Since 1985, TORRO has hosted annual conferences providing a platform for presenting recent case studies, site investigations and research in the field of severe weather. In more recent decades these are held bi-annually, usually in April and October. In 1998 the official membership scheme was launched.


Head of TORRO Paul Knightley
Deputy Head of TORRO Prof Terence Meaden
Tornado Division
Director Prof Terence Meaden
Thunderstorm and Severe Weather Division (Thunderstorms, hail and lightning impacts)
Director Jonathan Webb
Severe Weather Forecast Division
Director Paul Knightley
Treasurer Dr Robert Doe
Membership Co-ordinator Helen Rossington